This is a controversial topic that our ministry gets asked about consistently. It tends to incite debate but my encouragement is for Christians on all sides to think Biblically, rather than emotionally. Our aim ought to be to engage Scripture, present truths as best as we can, steer clear of character assaults, and make logical arguments with a generous dose of grace.

The controversy surrounding women as pastors or elders in a church mostly stems from one specific verse about teaching and authority, and one specific verse about an elder’s gender. Emphasis has been added in bold below. Here are the controversial passages: 

1 Timothy 2:11-12: “A woman must quietly receive instruction with entire submissiveness. But I do not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man, but to remain quiet.”

1 Timothy 3:1-3: “It is a trustworthy statement: if any man aspires to the office of overseer, it is a fine work he desires to do. An overseer, then, must be above reproach, the husband of one wife…”

Scholars have weighed in on both sides, feminists have exploded in outrage, and many churches are divided over how to answer the question, is it biblical for women to be pastors and elders? By “elder,” we refer to the πρεσβύτερος (presbuteros), ἐπίσκοπον (episkopon), or Ποίμαινε (poimaine). Those terms mean “elder,” “overseer,” and “pastor/shepherd.” We see these used interchangeably to describe those that we know as our church leaders today. These are leaders who hold an authoritative role in the church. They are those who function as the primary teachers of God’s word for the entire church. 

There is a lot to cover here, and many faulty arguments and presuppositions are used in an attempt to blur the clear truth. These include strategies like undercutting Paul’s New Testament authorship, questioning biblical reliability, poorly defining Greek terms like αὐθεντεῖν (meaning “to exercise authority over”), and limiting truths to only being cultural for times long past. We won’t be able deal with everything in one blog entry, but for further study, I recommend this Q & A with leading theologians, Andreas Kostenberger and Thomas Schreiner

When we let the Bible speak authoritatively across all ages, three things are clear: 

  1. Women are esteemed co-laborers in the faith who share the gospel in many contexts.
  2. Men and women are both used by God in powerful ways.
  3. Only qualified men can function as pastors and elders.

By the end of this article, those three truths will be argued for. Of course, if someone doesn’t believe the Bible to be the inerrant, sufficient, and authoritative word of God to man, it will be easy to find wiggle room on whatever aspects of this issue do not fit with their opinion or agenda. 

The words that start the war

It’s not always the fact that Paul penned these words that starts hot debate. Egalitarians (people who believe that women can be pastors and elders) don’t always take issue with Paul’s imperative commands, depending on their interpretation. This debate over women not being allowed to hold the role of pastor or elder can even be docile, as long as interpretations stay within certain parameters. There could be more, but here are a few acceptable arguments for egalitarians:  

  1. Paul’s words were only directed at Ephesus because of the local feministic culture.
  2. Paul’s words were due to the lack of education opportunities for women back then.
  3. Paul’s words were referencing women who were using authority negatively. 

In contrast to those interpretations, there is one interpretation that isn’t as widely acceptable as it once was. This is that Paul’s words were applicable then, and now. He was laying down a timeless principle for church leadership across all ages, not just at Ephesus. 

Is there a biblical foundation for such a position? To find out, unbiased interpretative steps are key. No matter how a passage makes us “feel,” we need to submit to what Scripture says. 

Let’s answer some basic questions then decide if it’s biblical for women to be pastors and elders. 

What was the context of Paul’s words? 

Paul’s words are set against the backdrop of a charge given to the elders when Paul departed from them back in Acts 20:28 as he said, “Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.” You could summarize the letters of 1 and 2 Timothy like this: Instruction for what an elder must do and who an elder must be. The context surrounding Paul’s words on women fall under that contextual umbrella. Paul wanted the church instructed clearly for its own health. He cared deeply for Timothy and the flock at Ephesus. This drives the flow of every word Paul writes, culminating with a charge to “preach the word” on the final leg of his ministry marathon (2 Timothy 4:2). 

To the original audience this would have been quite clear. Paul was providing a framework for the roles of men and women within church worship. He first explains that there is to be prayer for “all men” (2:1), including government and the conversion of people through the Church’s witness concerning Christ (2:2-7). He goes on to explain that men should be unified in their holiness, engaging in prayer that is from a pure heart and uncontentious (2:8). This harkens back to Paul’s words to Timothy to “fight the good fight” (1:18) and to be “keeping the faith” (1:19) unlike certain blasphemers (1:20). Such divisive men would be detrimental to the unity of the Church, making her vulnerable to false teaching. These men would undoubtedly be useful to Satan as wolves who prey upon easy targets. Hence the seriousness of Paul’s words for keeping the faith and functional order within the Church. Out of that flow of thought on functional order within the Church, Paul commands that women dress modestly in a way that puts focus on God and not on themselves (2:9), to be known for their good deeds and godliness more than flaunting their good looks (2:10), and to quietly receive instruction in submission to male teachers in the Church (2:11) who would no doubt be qualified to hold authority in the Church assembly (3:1-7). Using the Genesis account, Paul doubles down on the reasoning behind his command in stating that it was Adam who was created first, and Eve who was deceived (2:13-14). Lastly, he ends with an encouraging note that women will have influence over the next generation through rearing godly children, and thus, while not holding authority over men in the Church, they do hold authority over raising men who will one day lead the Church (2:15). A powerful eco-system in God’s order! 

Does Paul address the role of elders in other places?  

This is where arguments limiting Paul’s words in 1 Timothy 2:11-12 to only Ephesus fall flat on their face. To another church on Crete, Paul instructs Titus in a similar way. If Paul wanted to limit the application of his words on elders to just Ephesus, he would not have provided the same list to Titus who was serving the Church at Crete (Titus 1:5-9). Upon closer investigation, one can even see that Paul leaves out the phrase “able to teach” from the list for Titus but does say these overseers must be able to “exhort with sound doctrine” (1:9). It appears that Paul alters the language of his list somewhat. But does Paul adjust the gender? No. If Paul was only advocating for male leadership at Ephesus, and leaving things open ended in other places, then when he adjusted the language in the list to Titus, why did he still insist that elders be the “husband of one wife” (1:6)?

Gathering “intel” from other texts like Titus 1 is helpful, but not exhaustive. The question ultimately begs, is this issue limited to being about women and elders, or is there a larger theme at play?

Surveying the New Testament landscape, a clear theme emerges: God has ordained male headship as the normative pattern, not only in the church, but in the home as well. 

Where does the New Testament teach “male headship?”

God’s design is for men to lead in authority and to use that authority in the way that Christ did — to model sacrificial love and serve! It is not God’s design that male leaders abuse their authority, abuse women, or throw their weight around like a bully. They are to lead from God’s word to help steer those under their care towards God’s will. The New Testament is not silent on male headship. Paul’s words are not limited to Ephesus and certainly not limited to only elders in the church. Here is just a short list of truths from specific texts and supporting texts that affirm male headship and an ongoing pattern for this as a timeless principle: 

  • Pastor-elders are to be men; the husband of one wife (1 Tim. 3:1-3)
  • Christ is Head of every man; man the head of woman (1 Cor. 11:3)
  • Hold firm to the traditions you’ve been taught on Church order (1 Cor. 11:2) 
  • This is practiced by the Churches (1 Cor. 11:16)
  • Obey your leaders and submit to them (Hebrews 13:17)
  • Women encouraged in role of teaching women and children; not men (2 Tim. 1:5; Titus 2:3-5) 
  • The husband is the head of the wife (Eph. 5:23)
  • Wives submit to husbands (Eph. 5:22; Col. 3:18)
  • All are spiritually equal in Christ (Gal. 3:28)
  • Women are weaker vessels physically and emotionally, which should lead to male understanding and protection (1 Peter 3:7)
  • No woman wrote a NT book

It’s quite difficult to argue that Paul’s words on female elders are limited in context and that male headship is not God’s design when it appears all over the New Testament for both the church and the home! 

Dialing us back in on the disallowance of women as elders, John MacArthur succinctly explains the spiritual equality and exceptional gifts of women, while rightfully identifying the unique roles God has given each of the sexes. He writes, 

As in the Old Testament, spiritual equality does not preclude differing roles. There are no women pastor-teachers, evangelists, or elders in the New Testament. None of the authors of the New Testament were women. The New Testament nowhere records a sermon or teaching of a woman. While the daughters of Philip are said to have prophesied (Acts 21:9), neither the occasion nor the message is defined. There is no reason to assume they had an on-going preaching ministry, or that they taught during the public worship. They, like Mary the mother of Jesus (Luke 1:46ff.), or Anna (Luke 2:36-39), delivered some messages of truth elsewhere. As noted in chapter 6 of this volume, a comparison of 1 Corinthians 11:4 and 14:34 indicates women are permitted to pray and speak the Word, but Paul here makes clear that such allowance is not in the assembly of the church.[1]

On that note, let’s look at two arguments that some egalitarians and most feminists (they are not one and the same) turn to when frustrated by these truths. The first argument is that those who hold to a biblical view of male headship view women as “useless” for anything but cooking, cleaning, and birthing babies. The second argument is that male headship is inhumane, abusive, and misogyny. 

God used women powerfully then, and He still does today

God has used women mightily throughout the ages. Across the entirety of the Bible, and today, women are used by God to declare truth, teach, and be a witness for the gospel around the world. However, as we’ve seen, this is not to be done as an authority over the church or as an elder. Here is a simple list of women used powerfully by God throughout the Old and New Testaments, but never as elders (or priest in the OT): 

  • Esther saved God’s people (Esther 4)
  • Ruth’s loyalty changed history; she was in the lineage of Christ (Ruth 4)
  • Hannah’s faith and courage made history (1 Samuel 1)
  • Abigail influenced a king (1 Samuel 25:30-33)
  • Deborah was a judge [not a priest] (Judges 4)
  • Mary told everyone about the resurrection (John 20:14)
  • Priscilla, along with her husband, helped guide Apollos (Acts 18:18-28)
  • Chloe helped Paul (1 Cor. 1:11)
  • Phoebe was highly commended by Paul as a servant (Romans 16:1-2)
  • Philip’s daughters prophesied (Acts 21:9)
  • Women prayed and prophesied in the assembly (1 Cor. 11:4)

That is an incredible group of women and if we added history and modern day women of God we’d have countless. 

None of this means that women can be elders. Like a man who can hold his wife’s hand in the delivery room can still never birth baby, women can be useful to God in countless ways as spiritual equals but their role can never be, elder.  These are not issues of inequality. They are divine designs for functionality. We know who is supposed to do what and how it’s all supposed to look. If only a select group of qualified men are allowed to be elders, then the Church is better protected from abusive imposters. If the list can be changed, we are opening ourselves up to wolves in sheep’s clothing. Worse, we are trampling on Scripture.

Is this an infringement on human dignity? 

Emphasis on human dignity has continued to rise over the past fifty years — and rightfully so — which has led to positive reform in many areas of society. However, we must humbly ask, does an emphasis on human dignity and gender equality have to rewrite God’s design for gender roles? 

We most certainly can fight for human rights while upholding God’s beautiful design for marriage, the home, and the Church. Gender distinctions do not immediately equal human rights abuses or inequality. In fact, one could argue that false victimization can lead us to places we do not want to end up theologically or societally. All people of all colors, genders, and races are to be seen as equal image-bearers of God. None of that changes gender roles in God’s design. There are specific things God has called each sex to fulfill in the fullest sense. We do well to follow His design.

[1] John MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary: 1 Timothy (Chicago: Moody Press, 1995), 85

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Comments to: Is it Biblical for Women to be Pastors or Elders?
  • Avatar
    January 21, 2021

    Thanks for the article Costi!
    Can you clarify if it is Biblically acceptable for women to be worship leaders? This is not an eldership nor (in the church I attend) a designated position. I do see many instances in the Bible where women\’should songs of praise are recorded (Miriam, Deborah, Mary, etc). Would it be possible for a woman to lead the singing with being careful to not broach into teaching (during interludes)? Thanks! Zechariah

  • Avatar
    January 21, 2021

    I love this! Thank you for providing Biblical support and addressing both sides. We need more loving yet firm stances on this issue!

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  • Avatar
    February 2, 2021

    This is great and well informed article on the subject of if Women can be Pastors and Elders? I actually forwarded this article to a married ex-friend from the Pentecostal church I used to go to. I had a fall out with him and his wife. First because they didn\’t take me to would you believe [ hate mentioning this to you ] to a Benny Hinn Miracle Crusade in NJ in 2002. I needed a healing miracle [ I still do ] and they knew about this and they didn\’t even think of inviting me to the Benny Hinn Miracle Crusade in NJ in 2002 then after they got anointed by our Pastor into ministry first order of business was to tell me about their first sexual encounter with each other as a way to motivate me into getting married then his wife tells at me my wife is coming in the church in front of everyone so that they heard her so that they would be held witness then they falsely accused me of watching pornography then his wife tells me that he wouldn\’t forgive her I have sex with her insinuating that I want to have sex with her all of this because GOD didn\’t use her to heal me when because of him I first met her. Several years ago I somehow was able to contact them by email but because of their falsely accusing me I had harsh words for them but once I told them I gave them a second chance they decided that it was their opportunity to tell me that Benny Hinn and Morris Cerullo are not the healers insulting me because I already knew that. My ex-friend calls himself Pastor which I believe he shouldn\’t be. My ex-friend didn\’t even know if he should get married or not. First he told he wanted to get married I said great then he told he didn\’t want to get married I said don\’t get married then he got married without saying anything to me then he wished he didn\’t get married and I told him not think that way or he will end in divorce. These are the kind of things I had to deal with when I went to a Pentecostal church for 15 years. Isn\’t this crazy? This is what false doctrine does.
    PS I don\’t knew if my ex-friend and his wife are reading my emails but I send them emails anyway. I don\’t if they read them. If they read my emails Amen and if they don\’t read my emails Amen.

  • Avatar
    February 13, 2021

    This was an excellent article. However, I would like to point out a few things….
    Women were among those who followed Jesus. Women were healed by Jesus, the purpose of this was to cause people to believe. Women were the first to see him risen, and were told to go and tell… women were among the crowd during the Great Commission I do not find anywhere in the scriptures that it says only you men go into all the world and preach the gospel. But it says go ye into all the world! And it was women who were told by Paul, that they should stay with their husbands, that some might believe. Women have been tortured and killed for the sake of the Gospel. If women were not to preach the gospel, then I believe that women would not be baptized in the Holy Spirit, with the evidence of speaking in tongues. One of the jobs of the Holy Spirit, is to give power to be his Witnesses! The holy spirit gives gifts, and upon taking examination, it was shown to me that one of my higher spiritual gifts in this test was that of Pastor and evangelist. I am certain that I am not the only woman in the world that has been endowed with such a gift. Why would the Holy Spirit give such a gift to a woman unless they were to use it? I believe the word of God teaches us to submit one to another, and it does not signify male and female. I believe that this was a cultural issue. And let\’s not forget The Heroes of Faith those of which it was said the world is not worthy… Yes! Some were women! This is not an exhaustive list. Finally, I wonder who is going to let Anne Graham Lotz know that women are not supposed to be a minister for the Lord. No disrespect intended. Blessings my fellow believer in Christ!!

    • Avatar
      August 21, 2021

      Dear Cassandra, Women can be ministers / servants in the Christian Church – God\’s Assembly – this is clearly written in 1 Thimothy 3:11 and in Romans 16:1-2 Phoebe was a female minister/deaconess/servant of Church at Cenchrea and also Euodia and Synteche in Philippians 4:2,3 and Philip\’s daughters who prophesied and much more can be seen in Church history . But the important thing everyone needs to understand is that God has set his order and authority in positions in his church for the protection and growth of the church. This authority position we can see in 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 , particularly 1 Corinthians 11:3 – God – Christ – Man – Woman – heirarchial headship and also in 1 Timothy 2:12-15 1 Timothy 2:11-15 – Let a woman in quietness learn in all subjection,
      and a woman I do not suffer to teach, nor to domineer (exercise authority) husband, but to be in quietness,
      for Adam was first formed, then Eve,
      and Adam was not deceived, but the woman, having been deceived, into transgression came,
      and she shall be saved through the child-bearing, if they remain in faith, and love, and sanctification, with sobriety.
      And in the very next verse in 1 Timothy 3:1 , God\’s Holy Spirit says through Apostle Paul – 1 Timothy 3:1-2 – This is a true saying, If anyone desire the office of a bishop (supervisor), he desireth a good work.
      A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;

      Also in 1 Corinthians 14:34,35- 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 – Your women in the assemblies let them be silent, for it hath not been permitted to them to speak, but to be subject, as also the law saith;
      and if they wish to learn anything, at home their own husbands let them question, for it is a shame to women to speak in an assembly.

      In 1 Timothy 3:11 women similarly should be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things. – just before verse says about qualifications of male ministers, likewise guidelines for female ministers is said in 1 Timothy 3:11 which is confirmed in Romans 16:1-2, Philippians 4:2,3 by confirming existense of female ministers in God\’s Assembly – God\’s Church.

      So just because Billy Graham\’s wife or some other women minister it doesn\’t mean they are rebelling against God unless they take up the position of bishop/pastor/supervisor/overseer of church which is reserved for only men as we have already seen in scriptures 1 Timothy 2:12-3:7, 1 Corinthians 11:34,35. Women can do all ministry of God including preaching and evangelization , only thing forbidden is authoritarian teaching which is reserved only for those men ( not all men ) who are qualified to be Bishop – the qualification are said in 1 Timothy 3:1-7.

      So be encouraged by God\’s eternal words (rather than being discouraged by radical feminist lies and deceptions) – Holy Bible which says in Psalms 68:11 – Lord gives the saying, vast is the company of women who proclaim Good news and also by the very first Messianic Gospel Prophecy of God\’s eternal Word – Holy Bible which we see in Genesis 3:15 – Genesis 3:15 and enmity I put between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; he will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel.\’ – This was fulfilled by Lord Jesus Christ who was born of virgin named Mary by power of almighty God and Holy Spirit of God by his sacrificial death on the cross when Roman soldiers guided by Satan bruised his heel with nail , and Lord Jesus Christ bruised head of Satan and brought us victory over death and hell and all power in heaven and earth is now Given to Lord Jesus Christ, so that although all world lies in the wicked one, those who humble themselves in faith with authority of Lord Jesus Christ can have victory in this life and have eternal life with Lord Jesus Christ after this life.

  • Avatar
    April 6, 2021

    It\’s only controversial because people (including most christians) have been brainwashed by modern, westernized, feminist ideology. If you are a student of and truly believe in and trust God\’s word, this isn\’t controversial. Great article Costi!

  • Avatar
    May 8, 2021

    I think the Bible is a bit more nuanced. You have to look at it also as the time in which it was written. It was clearly a society run by men. Society is still run by men (though maybe this will change in the future who knows?). Men generally do not want to listen to women, which is why I think Paul is telling the reader that men should be pastors. I think the problem in modern church is that either people go \”hard stance\” in one direction or not. Some women actually know far more than men and have theology degrees. Are they not able to write a book? Are they not able to give a presentation? I get not \”pastoring\” in the sense of counseling a person or having a huge flock following them. But what if they are a member of a church – can they not discuss scripture in a presentation? Is that \”forbidden\” even if they are sound or know more than the men? That is where the hard-line gets absurd. The interpretation of men being the \”head\” over women has also caused many problems, ranging from abuse to general distrust. No one ever wants to read the whole chapter of what Paul says. Paul actually gives men a more serious command to lay their lives down for women. Lets just gloss over that and \”put women in their place.\” Um. An extension of this thinking is how people are treated in churches. That everyone is in a \”life stage\” and only the \’most progressed\’ or \’mature\’ are old married people with kids…. don\’t look at if a person is accomplished, or led many to Christ or whatever… nope only if they are married and/or have kids. So pathetic. Then people wonder why so many singles leave the church. People are being marginalized. Women or not. Women however do get the biggest brunt of this. Again I don\’t think a woman can be a senior pastor in the traditional sense, I can agree on that.. but not even having the opportunity if they are educated and theologically literate to write a book, teach a class on a certain topic at a church to members, etc? That is absurd. The same goes for leading or organizing an event. Women can\’t organize an event even in some places. Can\’t host a small group (even if they aren\’t teaching ANYTHING in said group even if its just regurgitating the Sunday sermon- if that!). Even if you volunteer to run something you are told \”no\” we \”need a man\” to run it, or \”a married man\” to run the singles group. Someone who prob has no clue. Doesn\’t matter– its a dude and that is an \”elder\” position. No it isn\’t. I\’ve heard just as much false doctrine in my life coming from a man as I have from a woman. My feeling is unless churches realize that many of these other roles are NOT that of a pastor, they will continue to lose members since most church members are unmarried single women (just look around at your own church). They are given ZERO place in church except the backburner in children\’s ministry and never accepted as a \”full adult\” without a man around them.


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